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A definition of water pollution is "Water pollution is the addition of substances or forms of energy that directly or indirectly alter the nature of a body of water to adversely affect its legitimate uses." These contaminants do not support human use such as drinking water, or make a marked difference in its ability to support biotic communities such as fish.

Water pollution related incidents.

In 1932, a factory in the Japanese city of Minamata began dumping its industrial wastewater - methylmercury - into the surrounding bay and sea. Methylmercury is incredibly toxic to humans and animals and has caused a wide range of neurological disorders. Its adverse effects were not immediately apparent. However, this all changed when methylmercury began to bioaccumulate in oysters and fish in Minamata Bay. These affected organisms were then captured and consumed by the local population. Soon, the ill effects of methylmercury became apparent.

Water pollution is the contamination of water beyond use, usually by human activities. Reservoirs include lakes, rivers, oceans, aquifers, reservoirs, and groundwater. Water pollution occurs when contaminants enter these water sources. Human activities that cause water pollution include waste disposal, industrial activities, agricultural activities, etc. People who use contaminated water for drinking, bathing, washing or irrigation may also develop water-borne diseases due to water pollution. When agricultural and industrial runoff floods waterways with excess nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus, these nutrients often trigger algal blooms that create dead zones or low-oxygen areas where fish and other aquatic life can no longer thrive.

Almost 70 percent of the world is covered by water, but only 2.5 percent of it is fresh, so securing water supplies is important.

Water pollution can cause human health problems, poison wildlife and long-term ecosystem damage. Globally, contaminated water supplies also dictate health damage in the form of disease. According to the World Health Organization, at least 2 billion people drink water from sources contaminated by faeces, which can transmit dangerous diseases such as cholera and typhoid. 

Regulations in many countries limit the discharge of pollutants into lakes and rivers from industrial and agricultural operations, and treatment plants make drinking water safe for consumption. However, there have been setbacks. Pollutant regulations are subject to political pressure.

Effect of water pollution.

Water pollution in urban areas is extreme due to the discharge of waste and toxic chemicals by industries and commercial establishments.

Dioxin is a chemical that causes many problems, from reproduction to uncontrolled cell growth or cancer. These chemicals combine with contaminated water and can accumulate in the bodies of fish and chickens. In the end, eating those types of meat can have a great effect on humans.

The impact of water pollution can have a major impact on the food chain. It disrupts the food chain. Cadmium and lead are some toxic substances, and these pollutants can cause persistent disturbances at high levels when they enter the food chain through animals (animals, fish when consumed by humans).

People are affected by environmental pollution, and diseases such as hepatitis can be contracted from dead matter in water sources. Poor drinking water treatment and dirty water can always lead to the spread of infectious diseases like cholera.

How does river pollution happen?

Some rivers, lakes and groundwater have been rendered unusable. India's Ganges is the sixth most polluted river in the world. This is not surprising, because hundreds of nearby industries discharge their wastewater into the river. Also, religious practices such as burials and cremations near the coast contribute to environmental pollution. Apart from environmental impacts, the river poses a serious health risk as it can cause diseases like typhoid and cholera.

According to a survey, around 4 billion people will face water scarcity by the end of 2026. Today, around 1.2 billion people around the world do not have access to clean, potable water and proper sanitation. It is also predicted that nearly 1000 children die every year in India due to water related problems.

Control Water Pollution.

Anyone can help protect watersheds by properly disposing of motor oil, paint, and other toxic products, keeping them off sidewalks and gutters.

Water pollution, to a large extent, can be controlled by various methods. It is better to treat sewage effluents before they are discharged, rather than releasing them into water bodies. By practicing this, the initial toxicity can be reduced, and the remaining material can be degraded and rendered harmless by the water body itself.

Water pollution is a very important social issue that needs to be addressed urgently.